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  三看2018年国家公务员考试职位表,查找自己能报考的职位。通过审核评估加强政府对高等学校的宏观管理和分类指导,引导高等学校合理定位、全面落实人才培养中心地位,健全质量保障体系,办出水平、办出特色,切实提高人才培养质量。

试卷一选词填空(文都教育版)

【原文】

Physical activity does the body good, and there’s growing evidence that it helps the brain too. Researchers in the Netherlands report that children who get more exercise, whether at school or on their own,  26 to have higher GPAs and better scores on standardized tests. In a  27 of 14 studies that looked at physical activity and academic 28 , investigators found that the more children moved, the better their grades were in school,   29 in the basic subjects of math, English and reading.

The data will certainly fuel the ongoing debate over whether physical education classes should be cut as schools struggle to  30 on smaller budgets. The arguments against physical education have included concerns that gym time may be taking away from study time. With standardized test scores in the U.S. 31 in recent years, some administrators believe students need to spend more time in the classroom instead of on the playground. But as these findings show, exercise and academics may not be  32 exclusive. Physical activity can improve blood  33 to the brain, fueling memory, attention and creativity, which are  34 to learning. And exercise releases hormones that can improve  35 and relieve stress, which can also help learning. So while it may seem as if kids are just exercising their bodies when they’re running around, they may actually be exercising their brains as well.

A)attendance        B)consequently     C)current           D)depressing

E)dropping          F)essential        G)feasible           H)flow

I)mood             J)mutually       K)particularly        L)performance

M)review           N)survive      O)tend

【答案解析】

26. (O) tend 本句缺少谓语动词,主语为children, 且为一般现在时,句子应用动词原形且要与to搭配,选O。

27. (M) review空前为冠词和介词,空处选名词,根据分类三个名词均不符合句意,review既有名词也有动词词性,名词意为“回顾”。

28. (L) performance前为形容词,空处选择名词,选L。

29. (K) particularly句子完整,位置不在名词前,考查副词,选K。

30. (N) survive前有to, 选动词原形,根据句意,选N。

31. (E) dropping逗号后句子完整,考查非谓语,depressing或dropping, 根据句意,选E。

32. (J) mutually句子完整考查形容词或副词,空后为形容词,故填副词,根据句意选J。

33. (H) flow 结合语意“血液流到大脑”,应填动词flow。

34. (F) essential 前为are, 后面有to, 搭配be essential to。

35. (I) mood前为动词,and并列,后有stress。

试卷一段落匹配(有道考神版)

36  正确选项  E

37  正确选项  L

38  正确选项  B

39  正确选项  H

40  正确选项  N

41 正确选项  J

42  正确选项  F

43  正确选项  C

44 正确选项  I

45  正确选项  G

试卷一仔细阅读(文都教育版)

Passage one

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

As Artificial Intelligence(AI) becomes increasingly sophisticated, there are growing concerns that robots could become a threat. This danger can be avoided, according to computer science professor Stuart Russell, if we figure out how to turn human values into a programmable code.

Russell argues that as robots take on more complicated tasks, it’s necessary to translate our morals into AI language.

For example, if a robot does chores around the house, you wouldn’t want it to put the pet cat in the oven to make dinner for the hungry children. “You would want that robot preloaded with a good set of values,” said Russell.

Some robots are already programmed with basic human values. For example, mobile robots have been programmed to keep a comfortable distance from humans. Obviously there are cultural differences, but if you were talking to another person and they came up close in your personal space, you wouldn’t think that’s the kind of thing a properly brought-up person would do.

It will be possible to create more sophisticated moral machines, if only we can find a way to set out human values as clear rules.

Robots could also learn values from drawing patterns from large sets of data on human behavior. They are dangerous only if programmers are careless.

The biggest concern with robots going against human values is that human beings fail to so sufficient testing and they’ve produced a system that will break some kind of taboo(禁忌).

One simple check would be to program a robot to check the correct course of action with a human when presented with an unusual situation.

If the robot is unsure whether an animal is suitable for the microwave, it has the opportunity to stop, send out beeps(嘟嘟声), and ask for directions from a human. If we humans aren’t quite sure about a decision, we go and ask somebody else.

The most difficult step in programming values will be deciding exactly what we believe in moral, and how to create a set of ethical rules. But if we come up with an answer, robots could be good for humanity.

46.What does the author say about the threat of robots?

A)It may constitute a challenge to computer progranmers.

B)It accompanies all machinery involving high technology.

C)It can be avoided if human values are translated into their language.

D)It has become an inevitable peril as technology gets more sophisticated.

47.What would we think of a person who invades our personal space according to the author?

A)They are aggressive.

B)They are outgoing.

C)They are ignorant.

D)They are ill-bred.

48.How do robots learn human values?

A)By interacting with humans in everyday life situations.

B)By following the daily routines of civilized human beings.

C)By picking up patterns from massive data on human behavior.

D)By imitating the behavior of property brought-up human beings.

49.What will a well-programmed robot do when facing an unusual situation?

A)keep a distance from possible dangers.

B)Stop to seek advice from a human being.

C)Trigger its built-in alarm system at once.

D)Do sufficient testing before taking action.

50.What is most difficult to do when we turn human values into a programmable code?

A)Determine what is moral and ethical.

B)Design some large-scale experiments.

C)Set rules for man-machine interaction.

D)Develop a more sophisticated program.

参考答案:

46. 正确选项C. It can be avoided if human values are translated into their language.

47. 正确选项 D. They are ill-bred.

48. 正确选项 C. By picking up patterns from massive data on human behavior.

49. 正确选项 D. Do sufficient testing before taking action.

50. 正确选项 A. Determine what is moral and ethical.

试卷一仔细阅读(沪江网校版)

Passage Two

51. C. Scholars and policymakers have different opinions about it.

52. A. Pre-K achievements usually do not last long.

53. B. When it is made part of kids' education.

54. D. She is a firm supporter of pre-K.

55. C. Early intervention.

试卷二选词填空(新东方版)

26 B advanced
27 D frequent
28 G dempens
29 A abandoned
30 M provide
31 K grant
32 H dietant
33 L merely
34 I understandably 
35 F dampens

试卷二仔细阅读(文都教育版)

参考答案:

46. B.It weakens in one’s later years.

47. D.Some of them begin to decline when people are still young.

48. C.They function quite well even in old age.

49. D.   can put what they have learnt into more effective use.

50. A.find ways to slow down our mental decline.

答案解析:

46. B.It weakens in one’s later years.

解析:从原文第一段declining mental function is often seen as a problem of old age, “心智功能衰退经常被看做是老年人的问题”,可以看出B是正确答案。

47. D.Some of them begin to decline when people are still young.

解析:从原文第一段but certain aspects of brain function actually begin their decline in young adulthood , a new study suggests. “但是一项新的研究表明,大脑的某些功能在人们年轻的时候就开始衰退”,可以看出D是正确选项。

48. C.They function quite well even in old age.

解析:从原文第五段中原句Most people’s minds function at a high level even in their later years, according to researcher Timothy Salthouse. “根据研究人员Timothy Salthouse的说法,大多数人的心智功能在他们晚年依然保持高水平工作”,可以看出C是正确选项。

50. D.   can put what they have learnt into more effective use.

解析:从原文第六段中原句but that the amount of knowledge one has, and the effectiveness of integrating it with one’s abilities, may increase throughout all of adulthood if there are no diseases. “但是只要一个人没有疾病,那么这个人拥有的知识量,以及把知识和能力结合在一起的效率,可能会在整个成年时期增加”可以看出D是正确选项。

50. A.find ways to slow down our mental decline.

解析:从原文倒数第二段中原句We gain insight in cognition changes, and may possibly discover ways to slow the rate of decline.“我们更加了解认知变化,而且可能会发现减缓衰退的方法”,可以看出A是正确选项。

试卷三选词填空(新东方版)

26 I    mood
27 C    current
28 O    ten
29 H    flow
30 F    essential
31 K    particularly
32 M    review
33 A    attendance
34 E    dropping
35 G    feasible